• The Defination and Main Functions of AGV and its Classifications

What is AGV?

Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV), also commonly referred to as AGV car, refers to a transport vehicle equipped with an automatic guiding device such as electromagnetic or optical, capable of traveling along a prescribed guiding path, with safety protection and various transfer functions. In industrial applications, the driver's van is not required, and a rechargeable battery is used as a power source. Generally, the travel route and behavior can be controlled by a computer, or an electromagnetic path-following system can be used to set up a travel route, the electromagnetic track is adhered to the floor, and the unmanned transport vehicle relies on information brought by the electromagnetic track. Move and move.
In industrial environments such as unmanned storage and parts handling, AGV trolleys are used as an automated machine. Therefore, the common AGVs on the market are equipped with corresponding safety components in accordance with the mechanical safety method to achieve the relevant safety functions. For example, the safety scanner and the safety edge are used to stop the car safely when the obstacle is detected, thereby reducing or even avoiding the injury.
AGV safety standards
Since the application of the AGV trolley belongs to an industrial application, there will naturally be corresponding standard requirements to regulate the function of the trolley and the content to be followed when proposing the application, ie
According to the environment in which the AGV trolley operates, the standard divides several areas:

  • Common area: common zone: An area not specifically reserved for automated transportation;
  • Hazard zone: A part of a public area where damage can occur. For example, personnel have insufficient safety clearance;
  • Restricted zone: A physically, relatively independent zone reserved for automated transportation where only authorized personnel are allowed to enter the zone.
 
When planning the route of the AGVs, it is necessary to take into account the clearance provided in the public area. According to the standard requirements, it is necessary to ensure that there is a minimum clearance of 0.5m wide and 2.1m high on both sides of the trolley in the public area. Of course, there is no absolute thing, and the standard also gives three exceptions:

  • Cargo handling station. The cargo handling station should be located in a restricted area and comply with relevant safety requirements to prevent injury. However, if the supplier is unable to provide a method for stopping the trolley effectively after the person is trapped, then an escape route must be established to meet the above width and height requirements;
  • If one side of the trolley travel route is continuous fixed protection, and the trolley and the distance between the trolleys are kept at <0.1m, then it is allowed to set up only the required clearance on the other side of the trolley;
  • The trolley has a full height inspection method. Full height personnel inspection means that the person can be inspected from the bottom of the trolley all the way to the top of the load.
 
Since the standard has been divided into regions, there are also requirements for the passage between different regions:

  • At the boundary of the restricted area, the way in which authorized personnel can enter safely should be provided. Security doors, or other forms of moveable guards can be made. The door must be open to the outside, must use the key when opening outside, can not use the key when opening inside, and the door opening action will completely stop the car in the restricted area, and the door closing action will not automatically restart the car.
  • If the goods need to be transported between the normal area and the restricted area, an automatic device is required to trigger the alarm, to move the protection or to stop the system.
  • The car and its cargo should be prevented from colliding with the door and movable protection on its trajectory.
In addition to the corresponding requirements for AGV applications, the standards for the design of the AGV and the performance level of the safety function are also required. However, due to the fact that the standard was released for a long time, the content related to security functions has lagged behind other related coordination standards that are currently implemented, so there will be no more introduction here. The new AGV trolley standard ISO 3691-4 is still in the development stage. After the new standard is officially released, Pilz will introduce the design and safety functions.

What are the main functions of the AGV? And its Classifications ?

The main function of the AGV trolley is to realize the unmanned and automatic handling of logistics transfer in industrial applications, so as to reduce the production cost and improve the economic benefits of the industry. The AGV automatically travels along a predetermined route, automatically transporting goods or materials from the starting point to the destination, and the AGV's driving path can be changed and flexibly changed. If equipped with a loading and unloading mechanism, it can automatically interface with other logistics equipment to realize cargo and material handling. Automate with the entire process of handling.

1. Classification according to the material handling requirements: It can be divided into traction AGV, pallet AGV, unit load AGV, forklift AGV, portable AGV, dedicated AGV, and suspended AGV.

(1) Traction AGV

The towed AGV is the earliest used, it only acts as a drag, and the cargo is placed on the trailer. Most of the trailers are used, and the trailers should be appropriately reduced when turning and slope. The towed AGV trolley is mainly used for medium or large volume transportation, and the transportation distance is 50~150 meters or more. Currently, the traction AGV is mostly used in the textile industry, paper industry, plastic industry, general machinery manufacturing, and provides in-shop and Transportation outside the workshop.


(2) Pallet type AGV

Pallet type AGV, which mainly carries pallets on the body workbench. The pallet is different from the body transfer device in that it has a roller table, a chain, a push-pull, a lifting frame and a manual form. Suitable for the entire material handling system to be at the ground level, from one point on the ground to another. The task of the AGV is limited to picking up and unloading goods. When it is finished, it returns to the standby point. The car can carry 1~2 pallets.


(3) Unit load type AGV

The unit load type AGV is divided into different forms depending on the size and purpose of the load. According to the characteristics of the materials and handling methods in the production operation, the carrier with unitized load is more and the adaptability is also strong. Generally used for the case where the total transportation distance is short and the walking speed is fast, it is suitable for the handling of large-area and heavy-weight items, and it is also self-contained, and it is also possible to change the guiding line and walk around to reach any place.


(4) Forklift AGV

The forklift type AGV can be divided into various forms depending on the direction of loading and unloading of the fork and the degree of lifting. Forklift AGV does not require complex transfer devices and can be connected with other transport storage equipment. The fork components are in different forms depending on the shape of the article. For example, for large cardboard and drum-shaped items, splints, special structures or double forks are used. structure. In order to maintain the stability of the AGV on-load travel, the vehicle speed cannot be too fast and the handling speed is slow. Sometimes because the forklift extends too long, the active area and the walking path are large.


(5) Portable AGV

In view of the increasing variety of light loads and applications, various forms of portable AGV have emerged. The portable AGV is a light, simple, and widely used AGV. Its shape is small, its structure is relatively simplified, its weight is light, and its price is low. Thanks to computer control, the AGVS is quite flexible and is mainly used in hospitals, offices, precision and lightweight parts processing industries.


(6) Dedicated AGV

The dedicated AGV can be divided into: AGV for assembly, AGV for extra-heavy articles, AGV for extra-long articles, AGV for SMT, forklift AGV for cold storage, AGV for handling radioactive materials, and ultra-clean room for use. AGV, film production darkroom or AGV used in no light channel.


(7) Hanging AGV

Some companies in Japan also classified the moving vehicles that travel along the suspension guide cables into the AGV. They are mostly used in clean rooms for semiconductors and electronic products, with loads ranging from 50 to 700 kg. The AGV is lighter in weight and has a single load, such as the public air unmanned guided vehicle (SKY-RAV) produced by Muratec in Japan.

2. Classification according to autonomy: It can be divided into intelligent AGV and common AGV.

(1) Intelligent AGV

The control system of each AGV trolley is programmed to store all the information of the running line and line segment control. The AGV car only needs to know the destination and the tasks to be completed after reaching the destination, and can automatically select the optimal line to complete. The specified task. In this way, the master computer used in AGVS can be relatively simple. The main control computer and each AGV on-board computer exchange information continuously through the communication device, and the main control computer can monitor the working status and operation position of all the AGVs in real time.


(2) Ordinary AGV

The control system of each AGV trolley is generally simple, and all its functions, route planning and section control are controlled by the host computer. The master computer of such a system must have a strong processing power. The trolley exchanges information with the main control computer through the ground communication station at a certain distance. Therefore, the malfunction of the AGV trolley between the communication stations cannot be notified to the main control computer in time. When the main control computer fails, the AGV car can only stop working.

In the gradual development of AGV cars, they have been shaped into different types. Depending on the AGV's use and product structure, there are many ways to classify AGVs.


The Defination and Main Functions of AGV and its Classifications

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